Parasite Glossary

Parasite Glossary

Glossary »





1Aberrant Host:

In which worm development is prolonged and/or the rate of development is low but can be complete(Kassai 1999)


2Aberrant migration:

The migration of larvae of a parasite into sites not typically found in the life cycle. This frequently occurs in accidental hosts


3Aberrant parasite:

Parasites that, cant be transmitted from human to human and are seen in human unusually(e.g. Multilocular cyst,Angiostrongylos ,Toxocara)



Nonliving ; used primarily for the nonliving parts of ecosystems, or of the environment in general


5Abnormal Host:

In which only retarded and incomplete development occurs(Kassai 1999)



Total number of parasite individuals in the Animal population divided by total number of  Animals



The developmental stage of an acanthocephalan parasite in which the larva develops definitive organ systems, that occurs between the acanthor and cystacanth stages



Thorny headed worms,Spiny headed worms;Members of the Phylum Acanthocephala,elongated worms with an armed ,retractile,oval or cylindrical proboscis,separate sexes ,lacking alimentary tract They also lack Circulatory system



The stage of acanthocephalan parasite which hatches from the egg,that in fact its the first larval stage



 Pesticide that destroys ticks and mites. Common examples includes the organophosphorus compounds, the synthetic pyrethroids, and the carbamates


11Accidental Parasite:

(e.g. Fasciola ,Dypilidium,Trichinella in Human)



(Pleural: Acetabula)A muscular organ of attachment,commonly called a” sucker” ,usually associated with the scolex of cestodes/ Cuplike suckers in cestodes



In Cestodes,when the adjoining anterior and posterior borders of proglottids do not overlap ; Or when Scolex does not overlap its junction with Stobila



Having severe clinical signs or short course(Noga 2000)


15ad hoc

For a special purpose, case or situation


16Ad libitum




Alcohol-Formalin-Acetate,Fixing agent,combination of: Ethanol 70 percent , Formaldehyde , Acetic acid For Cestodes ,sometimes is used for Fixation of samples


18Ala(Pl. Alae)

Thin cuticular projection or fin,or thickened wings of Cuticle,running longitudinally, usually lateral or sublateral on the body,frequently paired and Narrow or Broad.Cervical,Caudal or Lateral types exist -Cervical Alae confined to anterior end One in e.g. Toxocara canis ,Three in e.g. Physocephalus sexalatus -Caudal Alae: They are seen on the posterior end of only the Male […]


19Alcohol-Formalin-Acetic acid (AFA)

Please check under : AFA



Lethal to algae(Noga 2000)


21Allopatric speciation

or geographic speciation is speciation that occurs when biological populations of the same species become isolated due to geographical changes such as mountain building or social changes such as emigration. Results are called: Allospecies



A term, not regulated by the Code, for a designated specimen of opposite sex to the holotype(ICZN)


23Amman’s lactophenol

Temporary mount medium or for Clearing the worms (400 g carbonic acid, 400 ml lactic acid, 800 ml glycerol, and 400 ml water-store in a dark bottle) Its a toxic material



Having two opposed sets of female reproductive organs,one extending anteriorly and the other posteriorly to the vulva(Anderson 1974)(e.g. Dichelyne(Cuculanellus)sciaenidicola(Nematoda:Cucullanidae))



Pair of glandular sensory organs situated laterally in the cephalic region and opening through the cuticle(Anderson 1974)



(Meaning: Different-footed)An Order of Crustaceans in the Subphylum of Crustacea, without Carapace Some of them can be the intermediate hosts for parasites e.g. Gammarus pulex; Echinogammarus stammeri (Intermediate host for Polymorphus minutus)



=Gradual evolution, also known as “phyletic change,” is the evolution of species involving an entire population rather than a branching event, as in Cladogenesis.(Wikipedia) e.g. Biston betularia (peppered moth): replacement of White moths by Black forms in Britain after industrial revolution (since this change occured within the species, this is anagenesis) Compare with Cladogenesis



In Cestodes,in some of the species, the gravid proglottids are not shed from the Strobila and the eggs are released in another way,in this type of cestodes Pygidium is always the last proglottid in the strobila



Condition of Blood,having less than the normal number of Red blood cells,or less than the normal quantity of Haemoglobin In Parasitology,some parasites can induce Anemia in their hosts e.g. Nematodes: Haemonchus in Cow and Sheep Trematodes:        Fasciola in Cow and Sheep



Its a Phylum in Animalia Kingdom, Phylum Annelida comprises Class Clitellata (with clitellum and without parapodia) and Class Polychaeta (with parapodia)



Deep, transverse grooves occuring at regular intervals in the cuticle giving the body a segmented appearance(Anderson 1974)



The intervals or rings of cuticle,between the annulations(Anderson 1974)



Loss of appetite



Total lack of oxygen(Noga 2000)



Before Death



End Openning of the gastrointestinal canal to out environment,can have various places in Nematodes(Terminal,Subterminal(Streptocara formosensis(Nematoda:Acuariidae))


37Apical complex:

Polar complex of secretory organells in Sporozoan protozoa            (Leventhal 1989)



Having no open spiracles,in some of the insects



In Cestodes,Premature detachment of proglottids in some species ;or release of the terminal Gravid progglotid,that after degeneration will release the eggs; Compare with Anapolysis


40Area Rugosa:

Ornamentation of the cuticle,sometimes present on the ventral surface in front of the cloaca on the coiled part of the posterior extremity of the Male(Anderson 1974)


41Arrested development:

Prolonged and temporary inhibition or cessation of Nematode larval development in the host at the L3 stage(e.g. Ancylostoma ,Trichostrongylus) or at Early L4 stage(e.g. Haemonchus ,Ostertagia,Cyathostomum,Obeliscoides) or at Immature Adualt stage(e.g. Dictyocaulus)


42Asexual reproduction

Another way of Reproduction,beside Sexual reproduction In this way there is no need for existence of Two separate sexes e.g. Tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides corti reproduce by this way



Connections between two or more animals like: Phoresis,Commensalism,Symbiosis,Mutualism



Originating or formed in the place where found; Indigenous



Reinfection by a parasite derived from within the host and which is not exposed to the outside environment



In flagellates, an internal fibril arising from a blepharoplast and passing through the cytoplasm. An axoneme may leave the body of the flagellate with a small sheath of cytoplasm to become a flagellum or run along the surface of the body lifting the periplast(cell membrane)to form an Undulating membrane



A rod-like structure that gives rigidity to the bodies of some flagellates ,e.g. Trichomonas spp.



A red basic dye


49Bacillary Band:

A modification of the hypodermis ,consisting of the longitudinal rows of columnar cells that have pore-like opening to the surface of the cuticle,occurring in Trichuroidea (=hypodermal glands of some Authors(Anderson 1974)


50Bacillary Layer:

A non-vibratile form of ciliary lining of the intestine(Anderson 1974)



Cuticular inflations in the cephalic region assuming a swollen bandshape immediately posterior to the lips(=head bulb of some Authors)(Anderson 1974)



Of, relating to, or living in the depths of the ocean, especially between about 1,000 and 4,000 meters (3,280 and 13,120 feet).


53Beechwood creosote

Kind of Creosote resulting from high-temperature treatment of Beech, used as a disinfectant and as a treatment for cough before The major chemicals present in beechwood creosote are phenol, cresols, and guaiacol. Used for Acanthocephalans for Clearing


54Berlese funnel

A device for extracting Nematodes larvae from soil or litter in which the organisms are forced to move downwards by heat or light until they fall into a vial of preservative. Its also used for extracting Arthropodes from Soil and Litter samples


55Berlese solution

A Sticky Mounting Medium, In Cestodes ,Its usually used for studing the Scolex of cestodes



A cell having two nuclei



Any process that uses Microorganisms,Fungi ,Green plants,Parasites or their enzymes to return the environment altered by contaminants to its original condition. In Parasitology ,This event naturally done by some parasites inside the hosts e.g. Some Nematodes in Fishes (Ref : Azmat ,R. et al. ,2008),that can be sensitive indicator of heavy metals in Aquatic ecosystems



Having Two series of Segments For Arthropods,having Two branches,is used for describing the Appendages, e.g. in Crustaceans the Second Antenna is Biramous Compare with Uniramous



Fluid-filled cavity in metacestodes of some Cestodes e.g. in some Trypanorhyncha, Tetraphyllidea and Cyclophyllidea



A small granule-like body,usually appearing  in cytoplasm ,from whcih the axoneme arises/ The basal body origin of Flagella which supports the undulating membrane in Kinetoplastid Flagellates(Leventhal 1989)



Thick layer of fat that is vascularized (rich in blood vessels) and exists under the skin of sea mammals such as Cetaceans (e.g. Whales), Pinnipeds (e.g. Seals) and Sirenians (e.g. Dugong) which is the primary storage location of fat, acts in thermoregulation and helps in buoyancy



Sometimes used for Staining of Schistosomes worms



Small ,round or oval,blister-like inflation of the cuticle(Anderson 1974)eg.Bosses in Gongylonema spp at the Anterior region, Nematodirus Bursa region Desportesius invaginatus Cuticular bosses Loa loa has more modest bosses



Pleural for Bothrium.Please check under Bothrium



Pleural for Bothridium.Please check under Bothridium



In Cestodes,In Trypanorhynchs one of the dorsoventrally paired subapical outgrowths of the scolex,ear-like or elongated in shape,  either sessile or pedicellate ,whose musculature is contiguous with the general musculature ,and generally very mobile but rarely capable of a firm grip because of its shallow cavity and lack of suckers or subcompartments



In Cestodes,a form of sucker ,that resemples a groove in scolex,they are two longitudinal dorsal and ventral e.g. In Pseudophyllidean ,like in Diphyllobothrium latum


68 Bottle jawBottle jaw

or Submandibular oedema,A symptom of some parasitic infections in Ruminants (e.g. Acute Haemonchosis,Ostetagia in cow,Oesophagostomum,Chronic and Subacute Fascioliasis) It is also a sign very typical of Johne’s disease in cattle



Slowly multiplying intracellular Trophozoites(e.g. Toxoplasma gondii) ,Form cysts in immune hosts(Leventhal 1989)



Slower-growing forms of Toxoplasma gondii that eventually form acid-resistant cysts


71Brood parasitism

An event in Fishes, Insects and specially Birds, that they lay their eggs in other birds nests, from the same species (e.g. American coots), or different species (Cuckoos)


72Buccal Capsule:

Anterior enlarged portion of the buccal cavity wiht heavily sclerotized walls(Anderson 1974)



Poterior part of muscular oesophagus ,generally swollen,containing a valvular apparatus(Anderson 1974) In Acanthocephalans, spherical swelling on Proboscis, called: Proboscis bulb, please check under Proboscis bulb


74Bursa copulatrix(Copulatory bursa)

Please check under: Copulatory bursa



Its a detergent that helps lyse the cell membrane, however it is pretty poor with denaturing proteins so something with a longer tail is usually used for extraction (WikiAnswers)



General ill health and malnutrition(Noga 2000)



Its a chemicl compund.Sodium Cacodylate is used as a buffering agent in the preparation and fixation of biological samples for Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) e.g. for TEM on Cestodes



A blind diverticulum or pouch from the intestine(Anderson 1974) A sac-like extension of the intestine that is open at only one end,seen in Nematodes and Arthropods


79Calcareous corpuscles

or Calcareous bodies,Exist in the Parenchyma of  Cestodes , usually in Metacestode stage ,they are composed of different elements like Ca ,Zn,P , Mn ,Ni , …. They may play some roles as Buffers , Reservoirs of inorgnaic ions ,Excretion


80Canada balsam

Also: Canada turpentine,Balsam of fir,is a turpentine which is made from the resin of the balsam fir tree (Abies balsamea) For Cestodes specially,for making permanent slides,at the final stage ,after dehydration,the stained worm is placed on the canada balsam, and then the coverslip is placed on them For Digenes, Schistosomes, used for mounting the worms […]


81Canalis gynaecophorus

A Canal existing in Male Schistosomes



Oesophago-intestinal valve(Anderson 1974)



A host harboring a parasite but exhibiting no clinical signs or symptoms(Leventhal 1989)



(word meaning almost hairy cat), Larval stage of Insects Order Lepidoptera (Butterflies and Moths)


85Cement glands

Type of Secretory glands In Parasites , they exist in Male sex of Acanthocephalans ,close to Testes ,Structure , Number , Form and Arrangement of them is important in Taxonomy They secrete a substance which seals the Genital opening of the Female worm after copulation



Arthropodes (Phylum: Arthropoda, Class: Chilopoda) ; Unlike Millipedes, centipedes have one pair of legs in each segment of the body,legs are generally longer and tend to stick out along the sides of their bodies.


87Cephalic papillae:

Head papillae,Outer circle of four head papillae(latero-ventral and latero-dorsal) (Anderson 1974)



The free-swimming larva of a Trematode that usually has a tail(with different shapes) ,results from Sporocyst or Redia(in intermediate Molluscan host) and changes to Metacercaria in the next host



The most posterior part of the body in metacestodes, separated from the anterior body part by constriction formed by circular muscle delimiting small cavity containing the orifice(s) of the osmoregulatory system. The cercomer can be tail-like or form additional protective envelopes surrounding the remaining part of the body of the metacestode



Applied to structures connected with neck region             (Anderson 1974)



Subclass of Cestodes, They have a 10-hooked Lycophora



Tapeworms,A class of worms,Usually having a elongated,ribbonlike ,segmented bodies



True Cestodes, Having 6-hooked Onchosphere



An order in the Class Mammalia,cetus in Greek means whale,that includes Whales , Dolphins and Porpoises



Any animal belonging to Order Cetacea.The Order Cetacea belongs to Class Mammalia,Phylum Chordata,Kingdom Animalia,and includes Whales , Dolphines and Porpoises.



An abbreviation for the Latin word confer, meaning “compare“. used in writing when you want the reader to make a comparison between the subject being discussed and something else



Wall of Cheilostom(Anderson 1974)



First portion of the stoma of a rhabditid-like nematode  (Anderson 1974)



Primitive ray-finned bony Fishes e.g. Sturgeons that exist naturally in Caspian Sea,Danube River and USA



Persists for a long time(Noga 2000)



A type of muscle cell in which the muscle fibre completely surrounds the sarcoplasm(Anderson 1974)



Encircling the oesophagus(Anderson 1974)



Encircling the mouth (Anderson 1974)


104Cirrus sac

Part of the male system in Cestodes and Digenes



A structure,from chitin like substance, in Cestodes ,something like the Spicule in Nematodes



is an evolutionary splitting event in which each branch and its smaller branches forms a “clade”, an evolutionary mechanism and a process of adaptive evolution that leads to the development of a greater variety of sister organisms .



A branching treelike diagram used for illustrating Phylogenetic relationships



In Monogeneans, sometimes they have Median Sclerites Maybe Simple or Pedunculated



Club-shaped(Anderson 1974),specially for Esophagi



The common chamber into which the intestinal and genital canals open(Anderson 1974)



Host specific parasites are known to go extinct with their hosts (Koh, L.P. et al 2004) It seems that local extinction of parasites may actually precedes the extinction of their hosts ( Bush ,S. :China data)



Body musculature consisting of of cells of which the internal noncontractile part is well developed and protrudes into the pseudocoelom;The muscle fibers extend to the sides of the muscle cells for varying distances(Anderson 1974)



A larval cystic stage of a tapeworm containing an inner germinal layer producing multiple Scolices within a single cavity(e.g. Multiceps multiceps)



An Ornamentation in anterior part(usually Head region) of some  Nematodes(e.g. in Streptocara spp.(Nematoda:Acuariidae),Dichelyne spp. ,Cucullanus spp.(Nematoda:Cucullanidae)



An association of animals in which one uses food supplied in the internal or external environment of a host without affecting the host in any way(Rohde 2001)



An organism belonging to the same taxonomic genus as another organism(,of the same genus



Abnormal accumulation of blood in a body part(Noga 2000)



Individual that is in the same species(Noga 2000);Of the same species



A large Class in Crustacea,they dont have Compound eyes and mostly only afew mm long.Some species are parasitic,for instance Fish louse for fishes Some of them-like Cyclops-are intermediate hosts for parasites e.g. Cyclops , Calanus



Having the habit of consuming Fecal materials as food e.g. Dung beetles



Living in Fecal matter



Coitus ; Sexual union between Female and Male sex in  organisms having Two separate Sexes e.g. Nematodes , Acanthocephalans ,Arthropodes


123Copulatory bursa(Bursa copulatrix):

Modified caudal ala  or alae found in males of some nematodes ,may be circular or oval ,often divided into two symmetrical or asymmetrical lateral lobes, separated by a dorsal lobe and supported by rays or papillae(Anderson 1974) Copulatory bursa also exists in male Acanthocephalans



Developmental stage in some Cestodes that is a ciliated hexacanth embryo; e.g. Diphyllobothrium latum eggs develop to this stage and hatch in fresh water



Dorsal,ventral or lateral longitudinal thickenings of the Hypodermis(Anderson 1974)



In Nematodes,Longitudinal, cuticular cord-like thickening extending posteriorly from the mouth and may be straight,recurved or form loops,present mainly in the Spiruroid family Acuaridae(Anderson 1974),their Shape and Size is important in Taxonomy.They can be : Anastomosing e.g. Desportesius spp  Not-anastomosing , Recurrent ,Non-recurrent Or even for a Collarette e.g.  Stegophorus


127Core species

Species that are common and abundant,usually in a habitat or population


128Corona Radiata

Or Leaf crown,Crown of bristles, In Nematodes:The border of the labial region divided into a series of leaf-like structures,found in certain Strongyles.There may be two circles of leaf-like structures termed the Internal and External Corona(=Internal and External leaf crowns of some Authors)The number of elements is diferent among different nematodes( 6 in Deletrocephalus dimidiatus to 80  […]



Anterior end of the oesophagus often separated from the posterior bulb by the isthmus(Anderson 1974)



Cytochrome C Oxidase subunit 1



In Cestodes ,when the posterior border of a proglottid overlaps the anterior border of adjoining proglottid; In Cestodes ,when Scolex overlaps at its junction withthe strobila often forming a Velum



Most active at dawn and dusk


133Critical Point Drying

Critical Point Drying is an established method of Dehydrating biological tissue prior to examination in the Scanning Electron Microscope(SEM). The technique was first introduced commercially for SEM specimen preparation by Polaron in 1970.



or Map measure; is used for measuring length of curve lines on topographical maps, plans and charts. It has metric (in centimeters)or inch dials.Dials are usually in different colors. In Parasitology, in Helminthology, this device is used to measure the size of helminths after drawing with Drawing microscope(camera lucida)



Pertaining or relating to the Skin




Small Crustaceans living in the sea and freshwater habitats. Some of them can be the intermediate hosts of parasites like Cestodes ,Nematodes ,.. e.g. Cyclops strenuus is the intermediate host of Dracunculoid Nematode Avioserpens spp containing the 3rd stage larvae of this nematode in its Haemocoel (ref: Moravec ,1990)



Intermediate stage of acanthocephalans in arthropods



In Cestodes , a type of larval stage (Metacestode) ,a Lacunate form with a Retracted Scolex



In Cestodes , a type of larval stage (Metacestode) ,a Lacunate form with an Invaginated Scolex



The rudimentary mouth(Leventhal 1989)



A host that harbores sexually mature stages of a parasite


143Deirids(Cervical papillae):

A  pair of sensory organs found laterally in the cervical region and usually protruding above the surface of the cuticle(Anderson 1974)(e.g. Streptocara spp(Deirids have usually various number of teeth in this genus that is important in taxonomy))



(Dendron in Greek means Tree, and -gramma Drawing) A genealogical tree; the trunk represents the oldest common ancestor, and the branches indicate successively more recent divisions of a lineage for a group For showing the arrangements of clusters



With shape resembling Teeth


146Dentigerous ridges

Having ridges like teeth e.g. In Nematodes, for differentiating some of them, Multicaecum (with) and Brevimulticaecum (without) dentigerous ridges on lips (both from: Nematoda: Heterocheilidae)


147Deoxynucleoside triphosphate

dNTP,is used in PCR,provides free nucleotides(for DNA) in PCR test,that are the building blocks of new DNA strand



Inflammation of the skin



A period of time in which Development and Activity is suspended or arrested and the body is Dormant In Nematodes



With two sets of female reproductive organs(Anderson 1974)(e.g. Nematodes like : Synhimantus spp , Cosmocephalus spp)


151Digestive Vacuole

Lysosomal-like organelle in Plasmodium parasites



Finger-like, In Cestodes ,Type of Scolex shape , e.g. in Crescentovitus



Having Two separate sexes,adults are either Male or Female e.g. Nematodes and Acanthocephalsn are Dioecious In Cestodes,there are afew Dioecious species,e.g. Dioecocestus ,that is found in Birds



With two testes(Anderson 1974)


155Distilled Water

Its a water that almost all of its Impurities has been taken by the DW Machine by Distillation Distillation includes Boiling the water and then Condencing the Steam as a clean water into a clean Container



For Digenes, having Two suckers, one Anterior Oral Sucker and one Ventral Sucker (but not far in posterior)



Occuring during the daytime



A tube or sac ,blind at distal end ,branching off from a canal or cavity(Anderson 1974)



Please check under: Dimethyl sulfoxide



Please check under: Deoxynucleoside triphosphate



A marine mammal,belongs to Order Cetaceans,Family Delphinidae,that includes about 17 genera and 4 species of them live in freshwater



An embedding agent For Cestodes,worms are put in durcupan for making ultrathin sections-with Ultratome-for TEM studies



Distilled Water,Please check under Distilled Water



Bloody Diarrhea



Labored or difficult breathing(Noga 2000)



Moulting;Shedding of the Exoskeleton ; The process of casting off the cuticle in the final stage of moulting (Ref. : Wall & Shearer,1997)



A parasite living on the surface of a host (Rohde 2001) Facultative ectoparasite e.g. Cimex spp. (Bed bugs) Permanent ectoparasites



Displaced, In Parasitology,parasite that is in Atypical location within its Host



Unusual excess fluid in tissue,causing swelling(Leventhal 1989)



Young Eel


171En face view:

172en masse

Together ; All together ; In one group or body


173Endo parasite:

A parasite living inside a host(Rohde 2001)



Way of replication that is used by some parasites like Toxoplasma gondii



Swollen or Filled. Used specially for Female Ticks filled with host blood



Specialized ,ribbon-shaped ,paired bands of cuticle at anterior end(Anderson 1974)



A shallow or superficial loss of epithelium;shallower than an Ulcer(Noga 2000)


178Et cetera

Abbr. etc. ;And other unspecified things of the same class; and so forth;and other things



External Transcribed Spacer,part of genome used for PCR



A colorless or yellowish aromatic liquid with spicy odor and taste, soluble in organic solvents, and extracted from clove oil; used in flavors, perfumes, medicines, and the manufacture of vanilla. Its used for clarification of Cestodes too.



Capable of tolerating a wide range of salinity(Noga 2000)


182Excretory Pore

Its location is one of the important characters in Morphological identification of Nematodes,Usually at the anterior part of the body e.g. At the level of Oesophagus end, in Dichelyne(Cucullanellus)(Nematoda:Cucullanidae)) Between the Ventrolateral Lips, in Contracaecum rudolphii L4 Larvae



Abnormal protrusion of the eye(Noga 2000),its a sign of some diseases



The molting process in Nematodes specially.Shedding the old sheath (cuticle)


185Externo-labial papillae:

 Median circle of six head papillae(dorso-dorsal,ventro-ventral,ventro-lateral) (Anderson 1974)



Not obligatory(Noga 2000)



A female hawk(Coles 2007)



Leaf shape, e.g. Lamproglena pulchella is fiddle-shaped



Resembling filariae; threadlike;Used for a kind of esophagus of nematodes too



Resembling a thread  or filament or having the shape of them



A host that harbores sexually mature stages of a parasite



Having the toes separated from one another, as in the feet of certain carnivorous mammals. e.g. Bear , Dog ,Cat Fissipedia is a Suborder of Carnivora including all land Carnivorous Mammals.



Formaldehyde solution, Fixing agent ,usually the 10 percent solution is used in Biology Commercially available formalin solution is usually a 37 % or 40 % (weight / volume) solution. Its better to take this full strength solution to the field to reduce volume and to dilute it before use; For diluting the full strength solution […]



For Cestodes Hooks , Hook Handle longer than Gaurd and Blade , Gaurd as long or longer than Blade , thicker than Blade  ( Khalil, L.F. et al. , 1994)



Type of shape , Vertically elongate , longer than the width,that tapers toward each End e.g. in Polymorphus spp (Acanthocephala)  Body is Fusiform



Grafenberg spot,the word was invented by Addiego et al. in 1981 after the german Gynecologist Ernst Grafenberg who hypothesized its existence in a paper published in 1950



A mature sex cell(Leventhal 1989)



Death of Tissue(Noga 2000)


199Gene cloning

Making copies of a single Gene


200Genital papillae:

Tactile papillae or setae in the anal region of the male which may be preanal,postanal or caudal in position(Anderson 1974)



In Parasitology,A good Temporary Mounting Medium, Its used for Clearing the Nematodes and studing them better



In Cestodes,it exist on the tip of microtriches ,composed of mucopolysaccharide and glycoprotein acidic groups,has absorptive roles



Existence of separate Sexes in two different individuals (having separate Male and Female individuals), opposite of Hermaphroditism, e.g. most of Mammals and Birds are gonochoristic



Female reproductive orifice with different shapes important in taxonomy Slit-like in some acanthocephalans like Pomphorhynchus spindletruncatus



Grass and cereal eating (Coles 2007)



Feeding on grain and seeds (Coles 2007)



An accessory male copulatory piece which is formed by sclerotization of the dorsal wall of the spicule pouch,variable in shape but generally with incurved margins(Anderson 1974)(Y-shaped in Dichelyne(Cucullanellus)sciaenidicola,Cucullanus orbignianus(Nematoda:Cucullanidae))(Timi 2006)  In nematodes,A protuberance on the wall of cloaca. It apparently guides the spicule during copulation



Feeder on blood Nematodes,some of them are haematophagous,  e.g. Ancylostoma Trematodes, some of them are haematophagous ,e.g. Fasciola



Habit of feeding blood as the way of nutrition


210Haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining

A usual method of staining in histology, Haematoxylin stains cell nucei blue and Eosin stains cytoplasm, connective tissue and other extracellular substances pink or red.



The Space among the Organs of Organisms with open circulatory systems,it contains different types of cells and also Haemolymph Often functions as a Hydrostatic skeleton e.g. It exist in Most of Arthropodes and Molluscs



A set of alleles of closely linked loci on a chromosome that tend to be inherited together; commonly used in reference to the linked genes of the major histocompatibility complex. In some nematodes like Habronema there exist some Haplotypes.



Posterior disk of a monogenetic trematode


214Head papillae:

Tactile sensory organs usally located on the lips or labial region,including two circles of six labial papillae and one circle of four cephalic papillae(Anderson 1974)Cephalic papillae,Externo-labial papillae,Interno-labial papillae


215Hematochezia (Haematochezia)

Blood in stool, Passing of fresh blood via the anus or occurrence of fresh blood in stool – Can be caused by some of the parasites like Whipworms, Nematodes, Cestodes or Hookworms in Dog and Cat



An animal that usually eat plants as food



Existence of both male and female reproductive organs in the same individual(e.g. Trematodes,Cestodes)



Derived from a different species(Kassai 1999)



For Parasites ,Having more than one Obligatory host in the life cycle In Cestodes , e.g.  Raillietina tetragona


220Hexacanth Embryo:

A tapeworm larva having six hooklets(Leventhal 1989)



Louse flies or Keds, they have Winged, Vestigial winged or Wingless types, obligate ectoparasites of Mammals and Birds. e.g. Pseudolynchia canariensis, commonly found on Pigeons and Doves, can be the vector of Pigeon Malaria.



Of, relating to, or being the zoogeographic region that includes the northern areas of the earth and is divided into Nearctic and Palearctic regions;including North america,Europe and Northern Asia



Having all the spiracles open,like lots of insects



The condition in which there is a narrow gap between the eyes;typical of male Diptera (Wall & Shearer 1997)



Cilia distributed evenly over the body;usually used for Protozoa



The single specimen (except in the case of a hapantotype, q.v.) designated or otherwise fixed as the name-bearing type of a nominal species or subspecies when the nominal taxon is established(ICZN)



Related to Man or Human



Derived from the same species(Kassai 1999)



Its an enzyme with different effects, existing in some insects and Parssites, e.g. Haemonchus contortus, Ascaris suum For instance in Ascaris suum, it may utilize hyaluronidase to facilitate larval migration within the host.



A parasite living on or in another parasite, Parasite of parasite ; A Parasite that its host is another parasite , e.g. Plasmodium in Mosquitoes , Cestodes metacestodes in Fleas -Two species of Microsporidians have been reported as Hyperparasites of Acanthocephalans,i.e.  Microsporidium acanthocephali and M. propingui -Microsporidian Unicaryon nomimoscolexi in Cestode Nomimoscolex spp (Ref. : […]



Abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in normal arrangement in an organ or tissue,which increases the organs or the tissues volume(Noga 2000)



Enlargement of an organ or its part caused by an increase in the size of its cells(Noga 2000)



Hemorrhage in the anterior chamber of the eye(Noga 2000)



Deficiency of oxygen,such as reduction of oxygen in tissues below physiologically required levels(Noga 2000)



Occurring without known cause(Noga 2000)



(Pleural: Imagines, Imagos) Adult stage in Insects; Sexually active and if the species is winged, the wings are active in this stage


237Impact Factor:

The impact factor is a measure of the frequency with which an average article in a journal has been cited in a particular year or period. The ISI impact factor of a journal for a particular year is calculated by dividing the number of current year citations in ISI SCIE journals to the source items […]


238In toto:

Entirely;Totally(Noga 2000)


239In Utero:

In Uterus,Inside the Womb


240In vitro:

Observable in a test tube or other non-living system(Leventhal 1989)


241In vivo:

Within the living body(Leventhal 1989)


242Incertae sedis

Uncertain placement, unknown taxonomy e.g. Glossidium (Digenea)



All individuals of a particular parasite species occurring in an individual host(Kassai 1999)



Species inquirenda(pl. species inquirendae): A Latin term meaning a species of doubtful identity needing further investigation (ref: ICZN)



Using insects as food for nutrition e.g. Meerkat



of or pertaining to an island or islands, e.g. Insular lineages of lizards



Intensity of infection: Numbers of worms of each species per host



(Pleural of Interlabium)Cuticular outgrowths (neoformations)originating at the base of the lips or pseudolabia and extending between them, occurring in some Ascarids and Spirurids(Anderson 1974) e.g. Exist in Contracaecum spp and absent or have strong reduction in Phocascaris Their shape is important in Taxonomy e.g. Contracaecum rudolphii adult stage has  3 Interlabia with characteristic Bifid tip,however […]


249Internal Transcribed Spacer

ITS,part of genome used for PCR,its a commonly sequenced DNA region in helminths like Nematodes.It has two important types: ITS1 and ITS 2


250Interno-labial papillae:

Inner circle of six head papillae(Anderson 1974)


251Intestinal Caecum

An appendage of distal portion of the oesophagus of some nematodes that goes anteriorly and has varying length e.g. Contracaecum spp(Nematoda:Anisakidae), Dichelyne spp(Nematoda:Cucullanidae)


252Intestinum crassum

Large intestine


253Intestinum tenue

Small intestine



Capable of being rolled in; In Acanthocephalans, it is used for Proboscis In Cestodes, it is used for Rostellum In Snails for Tentacles



An Order in the Phylum Arthropoda, Subphylum Crustacea,Isopodes have 7 pairs of legs of similar size and form,they have biphasic moulting They are usually dorsoventrally flattened Some of them can be the intermediate hosts for Acanthocephalans, e.g. Porcellio scaber (Common rough woodlouse)can be an intermediate host for Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus (Levri, E.P. ; Coppola, B.P. 2004)



Order of Insects, including Termites



Middle part of a muscular oesophagus ,often constricted(Anderson 1974)



Please check under:  Internal Transcribed Spacer



or cleptoparasitism (literally, parasitism by theft) is a form of feeding where one animal takes prey from another that has caught, killed, or otherwise prepared, including stored food (as in the case of cuckoo bees, which lay their eggs on the pollen masses made by other bees). Kleptoparasitism is also the ‘stealing’ of nest material […]



Lobes or lips (primitively six)which surround the Mouth(Anderson 1974)


261Labial Denticulation(Denticles):

Present in Phocascaris (for differentiation:but doesnt exist in Contracaecum)



A solution of Phenol and Lactic acid in Glycerol and Water 


263Lacunar system

In Parasites , Exist in Acanthocephalans Its made up of Two main channels and Numerous reticular or transverse anastomoses Structure of lacunar system and Position of the main lacunae ( Dorsoventral or Lateral) are important characters in Taxonomy



(Pleural: Larvae)


265Latent parasitism:

Parasitism without obvious symptoms



Dormant or Concealed(Noga 2000)


267Leaf crown

=Corona Radiata,Please check under Corona radiata



Phylum: Annelida , Class: Hirudinea .Sometimes parasitic ,segmented worms with direct life cycle,several groups of them are blood sucking.Some of them can transmit Trypanosomes in Fishes.



In Cestodes,Early stage of development of some of them ,  with 10 embryonic hooks,  ciliated and thus adapted for swimming after emergence from the egg e.g. Amphilinidea , Gyrocotylidea



Mollusc-eating habit. e.g. West african Lungfish (Protopterus annectens) (a freshwater fish) is a good malacophagous fish


271Mallory’s trichrome stain

A kind of staining used to differentiate the granular tissue typical of parasite infections e.g. for studing the tissue reactions around acanthocephalans proboscis


272Mayer’s carmalum

A staining agent, mixture of Carminic acid, Aluminum potassium sulfate (Potassium alum) and Deionized water.Used usually for staining of helminths like Acanthocephala (10.0 g potassium alum dissolved in 200.0 ml distilled water (heated) plus 1.0 g carmine)


273Mayer’s acid carmine

Used for staining the Acanthocephalans


274Mehlis gland

Part of Female reproductive system In Cestodes,Shell gland,Glands surrounding the Ootype where egg shells are formed (Ref. : Khalil et al., 1994)



In Cestodes , a type of larval stage  (Metacestode) , an alacunate form with an Invaginated Scolex



=Mesial ; Of, in, near, or toward the middle Toward the center or median line



Second stage of Digenetic Trematodes after Cercaria, they are usually found in Fishes




In Cestodes , The posterior portion of a divided Scolex . Consists of folds of tissue generally encircling or hiding the Suckers . It either originates from the base of  scolex  , sometimes forming a sort of Collar , or from Folds of tissue between the Suckers   (Khalil , al. , 1994) e.g. […]



(Pleural: Microtriches)Tiny projections on the tegument,they are unique to Cestodes and appear to be Ubiquitous among cestodes and exist on the Adult forms and earlier life cycle stages. They have a Distal Electron-dense Cap and a Proximal Electron-lucent Base. The boundary between Distal and Proximal portions is usually called Baseplate. They differ in Size (Filitriches , […]



Arthropodes (Phylum: Arthropoda, Class: Diplopoda) ; Arthropodes that have two pairs of legs per segment (except for the first segment behind the head which does not have any appendages at all, and the next few which only have one pair of legs). Unlike Wireworms ,millipedes have multiple pairs of legs, extending the length of the […]



Free-swimming larva of Digenetic Trematodes ,its Ciliated




With one set of female reproductive organs(Anderson 1974)(e.g. Desportesius spp)



Having both Male and Female Reproductive organs in the same Individual



A Class of Parasites, They are usually Ectoparasites on Fishes,with Direct life cycle ,and  mostly Hermaphrodites ,but Gyrodactylids are exceptional and they are Viviparous They are very Host specific , their Infective larva is called Oncomiracidium e.g. Gyrodactylus ,Dactylogyrus , Nitzschia ,Diclybothrium



In Cestodes,type of Body Plan, i.e. mature stage of worms lacking a cercomer, without internal or external proglottidization and with a Single set of reproductive organs e.g. Caryophyllid cestodes (Order Caryophyllidea)



With one testes(Anderson 1974)



For parasites , Living in only one kind of Host in life cycle ; Having only one Host in the life cycle



In Cestodes,for type of Body e.g. Amphilina ,parasitic in Body cavity of Sturgeons



In a dying state(Noga 2000)



The anterior opening of body and the first part of Digestive system -In Nematodes,orientation of Mouth is mainly Terminal but some times: Antero-dorsally: e.g. Ancylostomaoidea and Rictulorioidea(Pterygodermatites(Mesopectines) alphi) Ventrally: e.g. Ichthyocephaloides dasyacanthus



Mitochondrial DNA




Back of the neck



Of or designating the biogeographic region that includes the Arctic and Temperate areas of North America and Greenland



Roundworms;Cylindrical unsegmented body worms with separate sexes and a complete digestice system



Study of Nematodes


299Nerve Ring

Concentration of nervous tissue surrounding the Oesophagus(Mutafchiev 2009) In Nematodes,its usually located around the muscular oesophagus and close to the anterior end



Position of an organism or population within an ecological community. The particular area within a habitat occupied by an organism.There are some types for it like: Vacant ,Fumdamental ,Realised …



Animals specially birds that stay at their nest or birthplace for a long time after birth, due to their dependence on the parents for feeding, protection and learning survival skills.e.g. most Mammals, Marsupials and many species of Birds It is the opposite of Nidifugous, where the animal is able to leave the nest very faster after […]



Please check under: Nucleoside triphosphate


303Nucleoside triphosphate

NTP,is used in PCR,provides free nucleotides(for RNA) in PCR test


304numen nudum (Pl. nomina nuda)

Its a latin term, meaning naked name. In taxonomy it refers to a designation which is similar to a scientific name of an organism, but it fails to be one as it hasnt been published yet or there is lack of scientific description for it.  


305Obligate intracellular prasite:

e.g. Toxoplasma gondii


306Obligatory parasite:

A parasite that can not live apart from its host(Leventhal 1989)


307Oesophago-intestinal valve(Cardia):

Situated at opening between the oesophagus and intestine(Anderson 1974)


308Oesophago-intestinal valve(Cardia):

Situated at opening between the oesophagus and intestine(Anderson 1974)



Esophagus;Part of the gastrointestinal system that connects the mouth or buccal cavity to intestine. In Nematodes usually has two parts,means Muscular anterior ,usually shorter,and Glandular posterior part,usually the longer part.  


310Oesophastome(Pseudobuccal capsule):

At the anterior end of the body(e.g. Cucullanus spp nematodes)(Moravec 1994)



Refers to slightly brackish water(between ~0.5 to 5 ppt salinity)(Noga 2000)



A single element of the Compound Eye(Wall 1997)



The motile ,first-stage larva of certain cestodes armed with six hooklets(Leventhal 1989) Size of it and size of Hooks is important in Taxonomy



Infective larva of Monogeneans , Its ciliated and can swim freely



=Ovicapt ; Please check under Ovicapt



An expansion of the oviduct surrounded by Mehlis` gland ,where egg shells are formed. In Cestodes,Vitelloduct , Seminal receptacle duct and Ovarian duct all are connected to it



The bony covering of the gill(Noga 2000)



Uteri parallel directed posteriod(Anderson 1974)



An Order of Insects with incomplete Metamorphosis , including: Grasshoppers , Crickets and Locusts



Main reproductive organ in Female sex,that is connected to a uterus; It can have different Shapes, Structure that sometimes has Taxonomic importance -In Nematodes,there is one or two Tubular ovaries,rarely more,like: Four : e.g. Polydelphis Six  : e.g. Hexametra Thirty two : e.g. Placentonema gigantissima -In Cestodes,sometimes Multilobate, e.g. in Amphilina japonica (ovary has Ovarian […]



Part of the female genital system between the end of the uterus and the vulva,modified to aid in the expulsion of the eggs(Anderson 1974)



=Oocapt ; In Cestodes ,Sphincter controlling entry of Ova from Ovary into the Oviduct    (Ref. : Khalil et al., 1994) ; Its the junction between Ovary and Oviduct in fact It seems it prevents the Immature oocytes from passing into the Oviduct and allows through only mature oocytes.



A substance destructive to the ova of certain organisms, usually helminths and arthropods



An organism that lays  eggs(Woo 2006)



The organ used for laying eggs(Wall 1997) In Nematodes, in Female sex



(Pleural : Ova) Mature gamete in Female that isnt Fertilized yet



Cylindrical anteriorly oesophagus,  terminating in a basal bulb(Anderson 1974)



Abbreviation for: Puncture, Aspiration, Injection, Re-aspiration; a method used for treating Hydatid cysts in human that needs an open surgery.



Of or relating to the biogeographic region that includes Europe, the northwest coast of Africa, and Asia north of the Himalaya Mountains, especially with respect to distribution of animals;compare Nearctic


330Palps(si. Palp):

Paired segmented organs associated with the Maxilla (Maxillary Palps)and Labium(Labial Palps)(Wall 1997)



Swellings in different shapes In Nematodes,classified as different categories e.g. Post-anal (Post-cloacal,Pre-anal(Pre-cloacal),that number of them is used in taxonomy.Maybe pedunculate or not


332Paratenic Host:

A transport host in which the larval stage of  a parasite undergoes no development and its only function is to transfer the parasite to the next host(Woo 2006)



Each specimen of a type series other than the holotype(ICZN)



Development from an unfertilized egg(Wall 1997) Some parasites use this type of Reproduction e.g. Strongyloides (Nematode)in parasitic life cycle


335Paruterine organ

A fibrous or granular appendage to the uterus that usually receives the eggs and retain them in a common capsule with protective and(or) propagative functions



The ability to produce pathogenic changes(Leventhal 1989)



Specifically distinctive or characteristic of a disease or pathogenic condition(Noga 2000)



Abbreviation for Latin word: Plumbum. Lead


339PBS(Phosphate Buffer Saline):

Its main function is to maintain the PH of a solution(Himanshu Goel),used in the first step of DNA extraction for washing the nematodes for instance



Please Check Under: Polymerase Chain Reaction



Having pedicel.Pedicel is a stalk like support In Cestodes,some of them have Pedicellate Bothridia


342Pedunculated papillae:

Modified ,stalked ,genital papillae in anal region of male(Anderson 1974)



Of, relating to, or living in open oceans or seas rather than waters adjacent to land or inland waters e.g.  Pelagic birds



(Pleural: Penises ,Penes)External sexual organ of certain Male organisms that is used for Copulation and Urination both or only for Copulation


345Per annum

By the year;Annually


346Per anum

Through or by way of the anus,e.g. for administration of medications


347Per capita

Per person; Equally to each individual


348Per diem

Per day; By the day; For each day


349per os

(Abbreviation : P.O.)By Mouth,by the way of Mouth e.g. For experiments on drugs, this method is used sometimes for giving the drug



Very acute(Noga 2000)


351Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS)

Used for Staining of Schistosomes worms



Inflammation of the peritoneum(Noga 2000)



A minute red spot caused by escape of a small amount of blood(Noga 2000)


354PH(Potential of hydrogen):

A measure of (an index for) the acidity or alkalinity of a solution,commonly ir ranges from 0 to 14



Narrow ,posterior part of the buccal cavity with thick sclerotized walls(Anderson 1974)



Pair of glandular sensory organs situated laterally in the caudal region and opening to the surface by a slit or pore(Anderson 1974)



An association in which one organism uses another as a means of transport and/or protection(Rohde 2001)



Fin-footed mammals including Walrus , Eared seals ,Fur seals ,Seal lions ,Earless seals (true seals or crawling seals which one of them exists in Caspian sea,called Caspian seal ,Pusa caspica)



Capable of killing fishes; Usually a chemical substance that is poisonous to fishes and can kill them.One use for them is to eliminate a dominant or invasive species of fish in a water body, e.g. Rotenone, Saponins, TFN, Niclosamide, Fintrol There are also some plants with such character like: The Tephrosia, Wikstroemia and Bariringtonia genuses are well-known […]



Having the habit for eating fish as usual food,Fish eating animal,Usually for Birds



Cuticular  “warts”  (Anderson 1974)



Body musculature consisting of cells not protruding individually into Pseudocoelom(Anderson 1974)



Cross striated  cuticular plates functioning as supports for the genital papillae in some males(Anderson 1974)



In Cestodes,a type of larval stage (Metacestode),an alacunate form with an Everted Scolex (Chervy ,2002)



In Cestodes,a type of larval stage (Metacestode),an alacunate form with a Retracted Scolex (Chervy ,2002) A peculiar larval stage of Dilepidid (Cyclophyllidea) cestodes



Latin word for Lead.Abbreviation is: Pb Chemical element



With more than two sets of female reproductive organs(Anderson 1974)



Kind of relationship, in human and animals like birds for instance, where male can mate with more than one female, while female can mate with only one male. e.g. Males of Australiann brush-turkeys (Alectura lathami) are polygynous


369Polymerase Chain Reaction

Its a standard procedure that can amplify a small amount of template DNA (or RNA) into large quantities in a few hours. It has several basic components,namely:DNA , Taq polymerase  , Primers ,  Free nucleotides (dNTPs for DNA , NTPs for RNA) ,DMSO , Buffer , MgCl2



In Cestodes,condition of body in which the body is formed of Two or more Proglottids Most of the cestodes are polyzoic



After death(Noga 2000)


372Preanal sucker:

Ventral,pre-cloacal structure ,sucker-like in form (Anderson 1974)


373Precloacal Sucker

Sucker anterior to Cloac e.g. Cucullanus spp (precloacal sucker without sclerotized rim)


374Predilection Site:

Preferred site within the host which is characteristic for a parasite species (e.g. particular groups of skeletal musculature for larvae of Trichinella)(Kassai 1999)



Period before being evident(Noga 2000)



Number of infected animals divided by the number of all animals examined for parasites


377Proboscis bulb

In Acanthocephalans, swelling on the proboscis of some Genera



Elongated, Flexible organ in Acanthocepales/ A muscular ,protrusible feeding organ in Rhynchobdellid Leeches(Woo 2006) Also an organ In certain Arthropods(Argulus)



In Cestodes,a type of larval stage (Metacestode),an alacunate form which can not develop further untill ingested by a second intermediate host,its without scolex ,usually caudate (Chervy ,2002) e.g.



The first larval stage of many Cestodes which develop inside the body cavity of the invertebrate (First)intermediate host(Woo 2006)



Uteri parallel directed anteriod(Anderson 1974)



(Pleural: Proglottids)Each of the bead-like parts of cestodes body resembling each other



(Syn. Strobilation)The process of proglottis formation in Cestodes


384Pronotal comb:

Conspicuous spines seen on the pronotum of some fleas



Development of Male organe before Female organs, for avoiding Self- fertilizat

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