Brucellosis: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment


Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Brucella. It is sometimes referred to as Malta fever or undulant fever. Animals are the main victims of this disease, especially cattle, goats, sheep, and pigs, but humans can also contract the illness by eating contaminated animal products like unpasteurized milk and cheese or by coming into touch with sick animals.



Brucellosis is caused by various species of Brucella bacteria, including Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis. These bacteria can survive in the environment for prolonged periods and are often transmitted to humans through direct contact with infected animals or their products.


The symptoms of brucellosis in humans can vary widely and often resemble those of other febrile illnesses, making it challenging to diagnose. Common symptoms include fever, sweats, fatigue, joint and muscle pain, and loss of appetite. In severe cases, brucellosis can lead to complications such as arthritis, endocarditis, and neurological disorders.

Symptoms and signs in 178 patients with acute brucellosis


Diagnosis of brucellosis typically involves a combination of clinical symptoms, medical history, and laboratory tests. Blood cultures and serological tests, such as the Rose Bengal test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are commonly used to confirm the presence of Brucella antibodies or antigens in the body.

Proposed use of RBT in the diagnosis of human brucellosis and complementary tests.


The treatment of brucellosis usually involves a combination of antibiotics, such as doxycycline and rifampin, taken for several weeks to months. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent the development of chronic brucellosis and reduce the risk of complications.


Preventing brucellosis involves implementing strict hygiene measures, such as pasteurizing milk and dairy products, wearing protective clothing when handling animals, and avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked meat. Vaccination of animals can also help reduce the prevalence of brucellosis in livestock populations.


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